Download Main Currents of Marxism - Vol 1 - The Founders by Leszek Kolakowski, P. S. Falla PDF

By Leszek Kolakowski, P. S. Falla

From thinker Leszek Kolakowski, one of many giants of twentieth-century highbrow historical past, comes this hugely infuential research of Marxism. Written in exile, this 'prophetic paintings' provides, in line with the Library of Congress, 'the so much lucid and accomplished background of the origins, constitution, and posthumous improvement of the approach of notion that had the best effect at the 20th century'. Kolakowski lines the highbrow foundations of Marxist notion from Plotonius via Lenin, Lukacs, Sartre and Mao. He unearths Marxism to be 'the maximum myth of our century concept that all started in Promethean humanism and culminated within the massive tyranny of Stalinism'. In a super coda, he examines the cave in of foreign Communism in mild of the final tumultuous many years. major Currents of Marxism continues to be the critical e-book in its box.

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To explain a phenomenon as constant and regular as ; <; the growth of the budget by the inefficiency of men. especially when it has its correllative in the increase of mortgages and of notes of hand, is as absurd as it would be to explain the Oriental plague and the yellow fever by the incapacity of physicians. It is the hygiene that must be attacked; it is your economic order that calls for reform. Thus the Government, which is called the instrument of order and the guaranty of our liberties, keeps step with society, falls more and more into difficulties, incurs indebtedness.

F�r . a long time the shipping trade has asked for the abolItIOn of transportation duties on the canals which yield an insignificant amount for the customs but are a disastrous fetter on commerCe. The Go�ernment objects that it is not free, that it needs a law of red�mption, tha�, moreover, it is engaged upon a project of farmmg oot the duties. The gist of it is t�at th�re exist franchises which hope to sell out at a hIgh. pnce; moreover, if the duties on navigation were abohshed, the canals would compete with the railroads, and the holders of the railroad franchises, very often members of the ministry, have no interest in reducing the railroad charges.

The grand total was $46,560,400. Difference between this and the war­ making budget, $ 1,454,439,000. Thus while the Government spent an average of 2 % millions for fostering popular ignorance, under the name of public instruction, it spent 84 millions, thirty_two times as much, to restrain this ignorance by steel and fire, if the frenzy of poverty should cause it to burst forth. That is what the politicians of the day have called an armed peace. s. But when it is admitted that the lofty financial and administrative capacities which governed France during those eighteen years had no such intentions as are indicated by these comparisons of the budgets, which after all, matter little, it would remain not the less true that the system of impoverishment and repression by the State developed with a spontaneity and certainty that might well dispense with any complicity on the part of statesmen.

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