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By James Patrick

This publication is a analyzing of the textual content of the Gospel of John in gentle of a convention of Johannine authorship represented via the Muratorian Fragment, Papias of Hierapolis, and the Anti-Marcionite Prologue, all that are taken to mirror the effect of a standard culture represented by means of Jerome, Clement of Alexandria, and Victorinus of Pettau. Taken jointly those recommend that the Gospel of John was once the paintings of the overdue first- or early second-century John the Presbyter who mediated the culture of a particular team of Johannine disciples between whom Andrew used to be most vital.

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Additional resources for Andrew of Bethsaida and the Johannine Circle: The Muratorian Tradition and the Gospel Text (Studies in Biblical Literature, Volume 153)

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The question of Johannine origins was of great urgency because Irenaeus’ opponents, Valentinus and Marcion, had produced their own interpretations of the Gospel while the Phrygians complicated the defense of prophecy by making the Apocalypse the proof-text for their chiliastic doctrine. Despite the publication of many thoughtful, extensively researched studies, we still do not know with any certainty how the Gnosticism Irenaeus opposed, an attempt to construe Christianity not as an incarnational religion based on the Hebrew Scriptures and prophecy but as a ‘spiritual’ religion represented on one hand by books like the Gospel of Truth and the Gospel of Thomas and on the other by the exaggerated Paulinism of Marcion, originat- 20 ANDREW OF BETHSAIDA ed.

The honored and essential nature of the apostolic ministry was 26 ANDREW OF BETHSAIDA confirmed by synoptic emphasis (Matt 10:2, Luke 6:14–16) and by Revelation 21:14, where the twelve apostles of the Lamb are the very foundation of the New Jerusalem. But there were, as Irenaeus once acknowledges, apostles other than the Twelve. Paul, listing those to whom Jesus appeared, considered apostles, “all the apostles” as he puts it, a category outside, and presumably more extensive, than the Twelve (1 Cor 15:6).

9 His was an intensely personal mission, and Irenaeus interprets the (mostly remembered) sources in ways that supported his theory, providing, intentionally or no, a field of evidence from which his readers would be able to construe and defend the implausible but not quite impossible theory of the composition of the fivepiece Johannine corpus by one who had been present at the Last Supper and had lived into the reign of Trajan (98–117) at Ephesus. ”11 But, arguably, another was meant, the disciple of the Lord known to Polycarp, John the Presbyter.

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