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By Rebecca Rowell

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The purohita was a priest who acted like a shaman or medicine man by treating illnesses with spells. Tribes soon grew to become mahajanapadas. Power shifted from the countryside to urban areas. indd 31 10/27/14 3:02 PM Kamboja In du In d us s Gandhara Kuru la ha c an Ga P n g Kosala es Sh Matsya Avanti N ur as e na Vatsa Chetiya Malla Kashi Vriji Ga ng es Magadha Anga Assaka The 16 mahajanapadas, circa 600 BCE From 1000 BCE to 600 BCE, the Vedic civilization thrived. The growth of settlements created additional jobs.

Many also had a toilet. And most houses had a platform for bathing. Builders constructed these ancient indoor conveniences against outside walls. There, water and waste would flow down drains and into a city drainage system. Houses also had chutes for garbage that carried refuse to bins at the ground level. The Fate of Mohenjo-Daro In 2014, after existing for approximately 4,500 years, what remains of Mohenjo-Daro was at risk for being lost forever. Dr. Asma Ibrahim, a prominent Pakistani archaeologist, explained, “Every time I come here, I feel worse than the previous time.

FROM CHIEFS TO A KING During the Vedic era, the city life of the Indus civilization gave way to a more rustic life as the Indo-Aryans focused on raising cattle. Later, they transitioned to agriculture, cutting down trees in the forest around the Ganges River to farm the land. indd 30 10/21/14 2:17 PM Barley is still grown in India today. harvested grain. Many Indo-Aryans settled in janas, small tribal groups. Each jana had a rajan, “chief,” and samiti and a sabha, which were ruling councils. The janas frequently fought one another, battling for property and livestock.

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