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By George H. Daniels

During this first attempt to outline an American clinical group, initially released in 1968, George Daniels has selected for designated learn the fifty six scientists so much released within the sixteen medical journals pointed out as “national” through the interval 1815 to 1845. In this reprint variation, with a brand new preface and advent, Daniels exhibits how American scientists emerged from a disorganized workforce of amateurs right into a specialist physique sharing a standard orientation and customary targets.

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Of course there remained some who, like James Rush, were convinced that a democratic society was incapable of appreciating the importance of research in basic science. 16 But Rush's viewpoint was definitely a minority opinion. "17 Even in 1821, when Silliman wrote the above comments, the changes since 1815 had been monumental; it is not surprising that he should have been optimistic and touched with pride in his own times. Before 1815 there had existed two general scientific societies in Americathe American Philosophical Society (founded 1769) and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (founded 1784)but the first was in practice confined largely to Philadelphia in the early years and the second to Boston.

By 1821 a large number of scientific societies and ''Lyceums of Natural History" were in operation. There were five natural-history societies incorporated in the state of New York alone between 1815 and 1819. In 1819 the legislature of New York provided state funds for the partial support of county agricultural societies, which would have as one of their purposes the general promotion of science. The New York law granted 10,000 dollars annually to be distributed among the different counties in proportion to their population; the proviso was that an agricultural society be formed in each county, the members of which should raise by voluntary subscription an amount equal to the sum apportioned.

Sally G. Kohlstedt, The Formation of the American Scientific Community: The American Association for the Advancement of Science, 18481860 (Urbana, 1972). 10. Joel J. Orosz, Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 17401870 (Tuscaloosa, 1990). Page xviii 11. Charlotte M. Porter, The Eagle's Nest: Natural History and American Ideas, 18121842 (Tuscaloosa, 1986). 12. Neal C. Gillespie, "Preparing for Darwin: Conchology and Natural Theology in Anglo-American Natural History" in Studies in History of Biology, edited by William Coleman and Camille Limoges (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984), Vol.

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